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Pipe and Tube Testing Services Overview

Penn Stainless Products offers a wide variety of pipe and tube testing services for made-to-order and off-the-shelf products. Depending on the services required, testing can be done in-house, at partner facilities, or through independent labs. See below for an overview of some common testing services.  Additionally, other testing is available at customer request.

Testing Services For Tubular Products

Liquid Penetration Inspection (LPI)

Liquid Penetration Inspection is used to locate surface-breaking defects in a weld. Close attention must be paid to both the weld center-line, and fusion lines, as this is where defects discovered through LPI are most likely to appear. Technical Question?

Radiographic Testing (X-ray Testing)


Radiography is a non-destructive testing method that can be used to detect cracks, porosity, inclusions, voids and other volumetric defects in tubular welds.  Radiographic testing uses x-rays or gamma rays. The amount of energy absorbed by the weld and surrounding areas depends on the product’s thickness and density.  This leads to dark areas on the film where the thickness has been changed by discontinuities such as porosity or cracks. Also, low density areas, such as slag, will appear as dark areas on the film, while inclusions of high density will show up as light areas. In order to use radiography testing, it must be possible to access both sides of the weld. This test should be used when castings undergo high stress, and when mechanical strength and/or corrosion resistance is important. Technical Question?

Ultrasonic Testing (UT)


Ultrasonic testing, which is often used to test thicker sections accessible from only one side, is typically able to detect finer linear or planar defects in a welded tubular product than is possible with Radiography testing. One of the most useful benefits of ultrasonic testing is its ability to determine the exact location of a discontinuity in a weld. UT directs a beam of ultrasonic energy to the weld, which then travels through the weld with insignificant energy loss, except when it is intercepted and reflected by a discontinuity. Technical Question?

Positive Material Identification (PMI) Testing

Positive Material Identification testing is used to ensure that the parent tubing material, as well as the filler material, are correct. There are two PMI testing techniques available. Xray Fluorescence (XRF) instruments are easy-to-use, hand-held devices, but they are not ideal for measuring lighter elements, such as carbon, found in stainless steel. Optical Emission Spectroscopy (OES) instruments are larger in size, but are the best method for measuring stainless steel materials.  It should be noted that both XRF and OES instruments are considered non-destructive. Technical Question?

Charpy Impact Testing

Charpy Impact testing is used to ensure that pipe or tube material meets fracture toughness specifications when used in structural applications. It is a high strain test that is used to measure the amount of energy absorbed by a material during fracture. The materials tested typically include the pipe or tube material and the weld filler material. Technical Question?

Hydrostatic Test

Hydrostatic tests are the most common method employed for testing seamless pipe, welded pipe, seamless tube, and welded tube. Using this test helps to uphold  safety standards, as well as to ensure the resilience of a pipe or tube on a long-term scale. Newly manufactured pieces are initially qualified using the hydrostatic test. At Penn Stainless, we will test to both industry and customer specifications.  Technical Question?

Dye Penetrant Test

Dye penetrant testing is used to detect casting, forging and welding surface defects such as hairline cracks, and pores or leaks in the pipe or tube. First, a section of the material is inspect for flaws invisible to the naked eye. Next, a penetrant is applied to that section of welded nickel alloy pipe or tube. The excel penetrant is then removed, leaving any flaws or cracks exposed.  Technical Question?

Now that you know what testing services Penn Stainless can offer, check out our pipe and tube product offerings!

» Stainless Steel Welded Pipe » Nickel Alloy Welded Pipe
» Stainless Steel Seamless Pipe » Nickel Alloy Seamless Pipe
» Stainless Steel Welded Tube » Nickel Alloy Welded Tube
» Stainless Steel Seamless Tube » Nickel Alloy Seamless Tube
» Stainless Steel Hollow Bar » 6 Moly Welded Pipe
» Duplex Welded Pipe » 6 Moly Welded Tube
» Duplex Seamless Pipe » Chrome Moly Welded Pipe
» Duplex Welded Tube » Value Added Services
» Duplex Seamless Tube » Technical Expertise


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