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416 Stainless Steel

416SS
Penn Stainless inventory now includes Alloy 416 (UNS S41600) in plate and round bar products.

General Properties

Alloy 416 is a martensitic, free-machining, chromium steel alloy that is generally considered to be the first free-machining stainless steel. It has the highest machinability of any stainless steel at about 85% of that of a free-machining carbon steel. Martensitic stainless steels were designed to be hardenable by heat treatment and also corrosion resistant. Although Alloy 416 and other martensitic stainless steels are not as resistant as austenitic or ferritic stainless, it still demonstrates good corrosion and oxidation resistance plus high strength in the hardened and tempered condition. Alloy 416HT is easily machined, is always magnetic, and has low frictional properties that reduce galling and seizing.

Specifications: UNS S41600

Applications:

Alloy 416 is generally used for parts that are extensively machined and require the corrosion resistance of a 13% chromium stainless steel. Applications that generally use Alloy 416 include:

  • Electrical motors
  • Nuts and bolts
  • Pumps
  • Valves
  • Automatic screw machine parts
  • Washing machine components
  • Studs
  • Gears

Standards:

  • ASTM/ASME: UNS S41600
  • EURONORM: FeMi35Cr20Cu4Mo2
  • DIN: 2.4660

Corrosion Resistance:

  • Demonstrates corrosion resistance to natural food acids, waste products, basic and neutral salts, natural waters, and most atmospheric conditions
  • Less resistant that the austenitic grades of stainless steel and also the 17% chromium ferritic alloys
  • High sulfur, free-machining grades like Alloy 416 are unsuitable for marine or other chloride exposure
  • Maximum corrosion resistance is achieved in the hardened condition, with a smooth surface finish

Heat Resistance

  • Fair resistance to scaling in intermittent service up to 1400oF (760oC) and up to 1247oF (675oC) in continuous service
  • Not recommended for use in temperatures above the relevant tempering temperature if maintenance of mechanical properties is important

 

Welding Characteristics

  • Poor weldability
  • If welding is necessary use Alloy 410 low hydrogen electrodes
  • Pre-heat to 392 to 572°F (200-300°C)
  • Follow immediately with annealing or re-hardening, or a stress relief at  1202 to 1247°F (650 to 675°C) 

Machinability

  • Has outstanding machinability
  • Best machinability is in the sub-critical annealed condition

 

Chemical Properties:

C Mn Si P S Cr
416 0.15
max
1.25
max
1.00
max
0.06
max
0.15
max
min: 12.0
max: 14.0

Mechanical Properties:

Tempering Temperature (°C) Tensile Strength (MPa) Yield Strength
0.2% Proof (MPa)
Elongation
(% in 50mm)
Hardness Brinell
(HB)
Impact Charpy V (J)
Annealed * 517 276 30 262
Condition T ** 758 586 18 248-302
204 1340 1050 11 388 20
316 1350 1060 12 388 22
427 1405 1110 11 401 #
538 1000 795 13 321 #
593 840 705 19 248 27
650 750 575 20 223 38
* Annealed properties are typical for Condition A of ASTM A582.
** Hardened and tempered Condition T of ASTM A582 – Brinell Hardness is specified range, other properties are typical only.
# Due to associated low impact resistance this steel should not be tempered in the range 400-

Physical Properties:

Density
kg/m3
Thermal Conductivity
W/mK
Electrical
Resistivity
(Microhm/cm)
Modulus of
Elasticity
Coefficient of
Thermal Expansion
µm/m/°C
Specific Heat
(J/kg.K)
Specific Gravity
7750 24.9 at 212°F 43 at 68°F 200 GPa 9.9 at 32 – 212°F 460 at 32°F to 212°F 7.7
28.7 at 932 °F 11.0 at 32 – 599°F
11.6 at 32-1000°F

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